SQL can be a powerful language for reporting. Whether you’re just exploring some data, or generating reports that show month over month revenue growth it’s the lingua franca for data analysis. But, your data isn’t always in a SQL database, even then if you’re using Postgres you can still likely use SQL to analyze, query, even joing with that data. Foreign data wrappers have been around for years in Postgres, but are continuing to mature and be a great option for joining disparate systems.
Overview of foreign data wrappers
If you’re unfamiliar, foreign data wrappers, or FDW, allow you to connect from within Postgres to a remote system. Then you can query them from directly within Postgres. While there is an official Postgres FDW that ships with Postgres itself, that allows you to connect from one Postgres DB to another, there’s also a broad community of others.
At the core of it Postgres provides certain APIs under the covers which each FDW extension can implement. This can include the ability to map SQL to whatever makes sense for a given system, push down various operators like where clauses, and as of Postgres 9.3 can even write data.